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Why Tribes Exist Today in the United States

Does the United States still make treaties with Indian tribes?

Submitted by fermin.aguilar… on Fri, 11/15/2019 - 17:40

No.  Congress ended treaty-making with Indian tribes in 1871.  Since then, relations with Indian groups have been formalized and/or codified by Congressional acts, Executive Orders, and Executive Agreements.  Between 1778, when the first treaty was made with the Delawares, to 1871, when Congress ended the treaty-making period, the United States Senate ratified 370 treaties.  At least 45 others were negotiated with tribes but were never ratified by the Senate.

What is a federal Indian reservation?

Submitted by DrupalMigration2017 on Sat, 08/19/2017 - 14:53

In the United States there are three types of reserved federal lands:  military, public, and Indian.  A federal Indian reservation is an area of land reserved for a tribe or tribes under treaty or other agreement with the United States, executive order, or federal statute or administrative action as permanent tribal homelands, and where the federal government holds title to the land in trust on behalf of the tribe.

What does tribal sovereignty mean to American Indians and Alaska Natives?

Submitted by DrupalMigration2017 on Sat, 08/19/2017 - 14:52

When tribes first encountered Europeans, they were a power to be reckoned with because the combined American Indian and Alaska Native population dominated the North American continent.  Their strength in numbers, the control they exerted over the natural resources within and between their territories, and the European practice of establishing relations with countries other than themselves and the recognition of tribal property rights led to tribes being seen by exploring foreign powers as sovereign nations, who treatied with them accordingly.

How is federal recognition status conferred?

Submitted by ChristopherJ.A… on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 22:14

Historically, most of today’s federally recognized tribes received federal recognition status through treaties, acts of Congress, presidential executive orders or other federal administrative actions, or federal court decisions.

In 1978, the Interior Department issued regulations governing the Federal Acknowledgment Process (FAP) to handle requests for federal recognition from Indian groups whose character and history varied widely in a uniform manner.  These regulations – 25 C.F.R. Part 83 – were revised in 1994 and are still in effect.

What is a federally recognized tribe?

Submitted by marian.bitsui@… on Fri, 10/02/2020 - 14:11

A federally recognized tribe is an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity that is recognized as having a government-to-government relationship with the United States, with the responsibilities, powers, limitations, and obligations attached to that designation, and is eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

What is the federal Indian trust responsibility?

Submitted by ChristopherJ.A… on Wed, 11/08/2017 - 22:13

The federal Indian trust responsibility is a legal obligation under which the United States “has charged itself with moral obligations of the highest responsibility and trust” toward Indian tribes (Seminole Nation v. United States, 1942). This obligation was first discussed by Chief Justice John Marshall in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). Over the years, the trust doctrine has been at the center of numerous other Supreme Court cases, thus making it one of the most important principles in federal Indian law.

What is the legal status of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes?

Submitted by DrupalMigration2017 on Sat, 08/19/2017 - 14:51

Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution vests Congress, and by extension the Executive and Judicial branches of our government, with the authority to engage in relations with the tribes, thereby firmly placing tribes within the constitutional fabric of our nation. When the governmental authority of tribes was first challenged in the 1830's, U. S.

indianaffairs.gov

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